Lesotho has one of the highest HIV and AIDS infection and prevalence rates in the world. HIV and AIDS poses one of the greatest challenges for national development, and threatens the very survival of the nation and its attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This realisation caused His Majesty King Letsie III to declare HIV and AIDS a national disaster in the year 2000. The declaration was followed by the adoption of the first National Policy framework for the prevention of HIV and AIDS, as well as a National Strategic Plan for 2000/01-2003/04 in the same year. Based on the Joint Review of the national response and current developments, Government adopted this updated National HIV and AIDS Policy document.